Simone Martini, Saint Catherine of Alexandria (detail) c.1320-25. Egg tempera on gold leaf on poplar wood. 82.2 x 44.5 cm. National Gallery of Canada. Simone Martini (1280/85, Siena, d. 1344, Avignon). Though scarcely any news do we have relating to his life before 1315, art historians conveniently are of a mind to suggest that he could have been one of Duccio’s alumni. A great part of his working life was spent in Tuscany, though around 1314 he visited Avignon and would stay there until his untimely death. Whatever his circumstances what is certain is that Duccio, Ambrogio Lorenzetti and himself were thought to be the greatest painters of the late XIIIth century and the first quarter of the next.
This work was (before it was dispersed) part of the left panel of an altarpiece in which (presumably) Saint Catherine was looking towards the Madonna and Holy Infant in the main central panel. She was presented with her usual attributes of torture: the wheel to which she was bound tightly which, in the painting, as a miracle, has just been reduced to a brooch; she also holds the pommel of a sword in one hand and a palm branch –symbol of her martyrdom and spiritual victory– in the other.
His innovative style was already manifested in his Maestà of Siena: a new tri-dimensional space was in the offing. Yet, he development of the Gothic style was to contemplate new manners in the way Martini painted his figures; a superb and delicate finesse, along with an observation of what grandeur and courtly forms really meant brought him to be a sort of court artist with a very keen eye on costume and fashion of his time.
Jesús Lorenzo Vieites
Violenza sessuale al tempo della Repubblica di Siena.
Riguardo la violenza sessuale, si registra un quadro variegato a seconda della donna offesa, distinguendo tra "stupro violento", ovvero la violenza vera e propria, ed il cosiddetto "stupro volontario" (cioè il rapporto sessuale illegittimo con vergini e vedove). La violenza su donna sposata era punita molto più gravemente rispetto a quella su donna nubile, mentre quella su meretrice o donna di "cattiva fama" era punita molto più tenuamente. Il valore tutelato non era soltanto la tutela personale della donna, quanto l'onore del marito o dei fratelli e padri titolari della vittima.
Gli statuti di Siena del 1310 puniscono la violenza carnale con una multa da 300 a 500 lire, ad esclusione delle violenze su prostitute; mentre il primo statuto del territorio senese a prevedere la pena di morte per decapitazione (se ai danni di donna sposata) è quello di Batignano del 1373... salvo comunque il caso di matrimonio riparatore.
Being a revolutionary in the Middle Ages was not easy. This artist found a way.
Ambrogio Lorenzetti. Born around 1285 in Siena and died in his homeland in ... 1348 (yes, during the first year of the Black Death - the Plague).
Ambrogio mainly worked in Siena and Florence and of course the main institution he had to paint for was the Catholic church or else, the government. Most of the requests at the time were images of Virgin Mary, Jesus, saints, Passion of Christ or allegorical images to illustrate virtues and sins.
The iconography was very well defined by the church so... apparently there was no freedom for the artist to improvise. And yet.... if you look at Ambrogio's work you'll see a breathtaking freedom. He had the capability to improvise and search for new means of expression.
This Virgin Mary and the child dates back to 1335 ca. and is preserved in the Louvre, in Paris.
The golden background, a typical element of medieval painting, denotes the light of God. And now look at Mary and her boy. Her monumental figure is holding firmly the moving baby who does not want to sit still. Her eyes are full of tenderness.
Little Jesus is holding an apple in his hand and he's doing exactly what every human child would do: he puts it into his mouth to taste. Well, the apple is there to remind us about the original sin. Therefore by eating it Jesus tells use several things:
he knows what his purpose on the Earth is and is the allusion to his future sacrifice.
And now look at the ear of the Virgin. She is wearing an earring with a cross - her knowledge about her son's purpose.
Isn't it beautiful?
6365:30 PM Nov 10, 2018
Allegoria del buon governo di #ambrogiolorenzetti , non so perché ma è un'opera che su di me ha un effetto rilassante... Sarà il titolo, sarà che amo #Siena saranno i #colori...